Extreme wide shot: figures appear small in the landscape. Often used at the beginning of a film or sequence as an "establishing shot" to show where the action is taking place; also used to make a figure appear small or isolated.
Long shot: figure can be seen from head to toe.
Mid shot: figure shown from waist to the head, you can recognise an individual and also see what they are doing with their hands.
Medium close-up: from chest to head.
Close-up: head and shoulders, can see facial expressions, so you can see thoughts and feelings.
Extreme close-up: from just above the eyebrows to just below the mouth, or even closer: used to emphasise facial expression or to make the subject appear threatening.
Two shot: any shot with two people in it.
Point of view shot: shot from character's point of view.
Eye-level: most common view, the real-world angle, shows subjects as we would expect to see them in real life; fairly neutral.
High angle: show the subject from above, i.e. the camera is angled down toward the subject. This has the effect of diminishing the subject, making them appear less powerful.
Low angle: shows subject from below, giving them the impression of being more powerful.
Bird's eye: scene is shown from directly above, somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect of for showing a different spatial perspective.